Preventive and Pre-operative evaluations
Pre-operative evaluations are used to assess the risks a patient faces during and following surgical treatment. Approximately 3 percent of surgeries result in serious complications or reactions Ė many of which are cardiovascular-related. During a pre-operative evaluation, a physician analyzes the cardiac functions of a patient in order to accurately approximate that patientís risk of developing cardiovascular complications. In some cases, a pre-operative evaluation can help a doctor determine whether certain preventive measures, such as administration of beta blockers or statins, need to be taken prior to lower the patientís risk level.
Evaluation begins with a review of the patientís prior cardiovascular history, including previous incidences of congestive heart failure, arrhythmia and angina. Other health factors, such as high blood pressure, a history of tobacco use and the presence of diabetes also play a vital role in the evaluation. In some cases, a physician will order an electrocardiogram to detect underlying heart disease or a history of myocardial infarction. Functional capacity tests may also be a part of the evaluation as a measure of physical ability. These tests are indicative of a patientís risk of developing future cardiovascular complications.